Hi and thank you for this FAQ. It is very useful for modders to hear these future plans as we have to plan our own lives too. This all seems very positive for 1.8.
Thinking about Galacticraft, we're not going to be ready to be looking at a 1.8 version until at least January anyhow, as we like to make a new planet (or other celestial body) with each major version update.
My take on the Microsoft takeover of Mojang: Microsoft are buying the company, not the game. They could just have bought the ownership of the game and left the company alone. If you buy a company, it means you are buying the team of people who work there. So everything points to the game (PC/Mac version) continuing to be updated by the Mojang team in Sweden. Microsoft's stated interest is merchandising and increasing the expansion of Minecraft to other platforms. The conversions to other platforms are not coded by Mojang anyhow - the work is done by 4J Studios in Scotland - so it doesn't seem likely Mojang will switch to working on those.